Home      News      About us      Site map      Contact us      Help flamingos Do you have a flamingo resource to submit? Click here.


Flamingo basics
Special topics


Flamingos and zoos
IUCN/SSC Flamingo Specialist Group
Photo gallery


Home > Species > James's Flamingo
James's Flamingo Phoenicoparrus jamesi
Alternative names: Puna Flamingo; Lesser Andean Flamingo; parina, parina chica
('small parina') & parinagua (local names).

The James's Flamingo Phoenicoparrus jamesi is a small South American flamingo found on the high Andean plateaus of Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.

It is the palest of the South American flamingos and is distinguised from all other flamingos by its orange legs, yellow bill and red skin near the eyes. It is most closely related to the Andean Flamingo, and the two are the only members of the genus Phoenicoparrus.

The James's Flamingo was named for Henry Berkeley James, an English naturalist, who funded expeditions to Chile to collect specimens of birds, butterflies and moths. One expedition collected a specimen of a new flamingo, which Philip Sclater described in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society (1886) and named James's Flamingo.
  • Taxonomy
  • Description
  • Range & habitat
  • Population & status
  • Threats
  • Conservation measures
  • Captive collections
  • References


    Images from ARKive.org:
    click image to enlarge.


    ^ top  
    Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater, 1886)

    Alternatively, Phoenicopterus jamesi in Collar et al. (1994) and Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).
    Source: BirdLife (Puna Flamingo Species Factsheet)


    ^ top  

    Height: 90-92 cm
    Voice: Fluted rattles

    A small, pale pink flamingo. Bright carmine streaks around neck and on back. Bill is bright yellow with black tip (less than one third of bill). Bright red skin around eye. Orange legs. Three forward-pointing toes, no hind toe (hallux). Immature is greyish with narrow streaks on upperparts.

    Similar species: Chilean Flamingos are pinker, with paler and longer bills. Andean Flamingos are larger, more violet in colour, show more black in wings and bill, and have yellow legs.

    Range & habitat

    ^ top  
    Range estimate (breeding/resident): 274,000 km2

    From BirdLife: The James's Flamingo occurs on the high Andean plateaus of Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina, with small numbers occurring around the lowland Laguna Mar Chiquita, Argentina. The only regular breeding sites are Laguna Colorada and Laguna Guayaques, Bolivia, with up to 41,000 birds recorded at the former and recruitment appearing to depend almost exclusively on this site, but another colony has flourished at Salar de Tara, Chile and birds are also present in summer at Lagunas de Vilama and Laguna Grande, Argentina.

    Detailed range map from IUCN/BirdLife:
    (Click to enlarge)

    From BirdLife: It is found mainly on high saline lakes, where it feeds mainly on diatoms, but it is also a partial elevational migrant which moves to lower altitude lakes in the non-breeding season.

    Source: BirdLife (Puna Flamingo Species Factsheet)

    Population & status

    ^ top  
    Population estimate:
    Population trend:
    100,000 (2005 census)
    From BirdLife: A coordinated census in 2005 estimated the population to be 100,000 birds. The population probably declined rapidly during the 20th century, but has started to increase, presumably owing to the success of conservation programmes. Breeding success varies greatly from year to year, with threats mostly impacting on productivity, but the 1999-2000 season was extraordinarily successful, and 18,000 chicks hatched at Laguna Colorada.
    IUCN Red List catergory:
    CMS listing:
    CITES listing:
    Near Threatened (BirdLife, 2006)
    Appendices I & II
    Appendix II
    Source: BirdLife (Puna Flamingo Species Factsheet)


    ^ top  

    • Climate change: levels of diatoms may be affected reducing food resources
    • Egg-collecting and hunting: intensive during the 20th century but have been controlled in protected areas
    • Mining activity and the associated demand for water
    • Tourism

    Source: BirdLife (Puna Flamingo Species Factsheet)

    Conservation measures

    ^ top  

    International and national conservation programmes have been organised in all four range countries and will hopefully continue to encourage population growth. Large parts of the species' range are protected - the key protected area is Eduardo Avaroa National Faunal Reserve, Bolivia.

    Proposed measures:
    • Continue simultaneous surveys during breeding season to monitor population.
    • Increase network of protected areas to include vital sites in Argentina.
    • Investigate feasibility of creating a trinational reserve integrating management of sites in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile to protect key breeding colonies and congregation sites.

    Source: BirdLife (Puna Flamingo Species Factsheet)

    Captive collections

    ^ top  

    According to the International Species Information System (ISIS) (data downloaded 25 May 2008) only three James's Flamingos are registered in captivity. These birds are all held at the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge in the United Kingdom.

    Source: International Species Information System (ISIS)


    ^ top  

    BirdLife. 2008. Puna Flamingo Species Factsheet. From http://www.birdlife.org/
    datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=3773&m=0, downloaded 15 Nov 2008.

    International Species Information System (ISIS). ISIS Species Holdings. From http://www.isis.org/CMSHOME/, downloaded 13 Oct 2008.

    IUCN. 2008. Puna Flamingo. From http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/144725, downloaded 13 Nov 2008.

    Related Publications

     >>  James Flamingo foraging
    behavior in Argentina

    From Colonial Waterbirds 1998

     >>  Seasonal distribution, abundance, and nesting of Puna, Andean, and Chilean Flamingos
    From The Condor 2007

     >>  The South American flamingos
    From The Condor 1958

    More publications >>

    Related Links

     >>  BirdLife Species Factsheet -
    Puna Flamingo

    From BirdLife

     >>  IUCN Species Account -
    Phoenicoparrus jamesi

    From IUCN

     >>  Images and movies of the Puna Flamingo Phoenicoparrus jamesi (also includes species info)
    From ARKive

     >>  Puna Flamingo

     >>  James's Flamingo
    From Wikipedia

     >>  Henry James and his Flamingo
    From RSPB Walsall

    Home  |  News  |  About us  |  Site map  |  Contact us  |  Help flamingos  |  Submit a resource  |  Disclaimer

    Flamingo Resource Centre 2008